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Details of AVR Microcontroller (ATmega16/32)

Saturday, 14 May 2011 | 0 comments

The ATmega16A is a low-power CMOS 8-bit microcontroller based on the AVR enhanced RISC

architecture. By executing powerful instructions in a single clock cycle, the ATmega16A
achieves throughputs approaching 1 MIPS per MHz allowing the system designer to optimize
power consumption versus processing speed.


Features

• High-performance, Low-power AVR® 8-bit Microcontroller
• Advanced RISC Architecture
– 131 Powerful Instructions – Most Single-clock Cycle Execution
– 32 x 8 General Purpose Working Registers
– Fully Static Operation
– Up to 16 MIPS Throughput at 16 MHz
– On-chip 2-cycle Multiplier
• High Endurance Non-volatile Memory segments
– 16K Bytes of In-System Self-programmable Flash program memory
– 512 Bytes EEPROM
– 1K Byte Internal SRAM
– Write/Erase Cycles: 10,000 Flash/100,000 EEPROM
– Data retention: 20 years at 85°C/100 years at 25°C(1)
– Optional Boot Code Section with Independent Lock Bits
• In-System Programming by On-chip Boot Program
• True Read-While-Write Operation
– Programming Lock for Software Security
• JTAG (IEEE std. 1149.1 Compliant) Interface
– Boundary-scan Capabilities According to the JTAG Standard
– Extensive On-chip Debug Support
– Programming of Flash, EEPROM, Fuses, and Lock Bits through the JTAG Interface
• Peripheral Features
– Two 8-bit Timer/Counters with Separate Prescalers and Compare Modes
– One 16-bit Timer/Counter with Separate Prescaler, Compare Mode, and Capture
Mode
– Real Time Counter with Separate Oscillator
– Four PWM Channels
– 8-channel, 10-bit ADC
• 8 Single-ended Channels
• 7 Differential Channels in TQFP Package Only
• 2 Differential Channels with Programmable Gain at 1x, 10x, or 200x
– Byte-oriented Two-wire Serial Interface
– Programmable Serial USART
– Master/Slave SPI Serial Interface
– Programmable Watchdog Timer with Separate On-chip Oscillator
– On-chip Analog Comparator
• Special Microcontroller Features
– Power-on Reset and Programmable Brown-out Detection
– Internal Calibrated RC Oscillator
– External and Internal Interrupt Sources
– Six Sleep Modes: Idle, ADC Noise Reduction, Power-save, Power-down, Standby
and Extended Standby
• I/O and Packages
– 32 Programmable I/O Lines
– 40-pin PDIP, 44-lead TQFP, and 44-pad QFN/MLF
• Operating Voltages
– 2.7 - 5.5V for ATmega16A
• Speed Grades
– 0 - 16 MHz for ATmega16A
• Power Consumption @ 1 MHz, 3V, and 25°C for ATmega16A
– Active: 0.6 mA
– Idle Mode: 0.2 mA



Pin Descriptions
  •      VCC
Digital supply voltage.
  •      GND
Ground.
  •      Port A (PA7:PA0)
Port A serves as the analog inputs to the A/D Converter.
Port A also serves as an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port, if the A/D Converter is not used. Port pins can provide internal pull-up resistors (selected for each bit). The Port A output buffers have symmetrical drive characteristics with both high sink and source capability. When pins PA0 to PA7 are used as inputs and are externally pulled low, they will source current if the internal pull-up resistors are activated. The Port A pins are tri-stated when a reset condition becomes active, even if the clock is not running.
  •      Port B (PB7:PB0)
Port B is an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pull-up resistors (selected for each bit). The
Port B output buffers have symmetrical drive characteristics with both high sink and source capability. As inputs, Port B pins that are externally pulled low will source current if the pull-up resistors are activated. The Port B pins are tri-stated when a reset condition becomes active, even if the clock is not running.
Port B also serves the functions of various special features of the ATmega16A as listed on page
57.
  •      Port C (PC7:PC0)
Port C is an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pull-up resistors (selected for each bit). The
Port C output buffers have symmetrical drive characteristics with both high sink and source capability. As inputs, Port C pins that are externally pulled low will source current if the pull-up resistors are activated. The Port C pins are tri-stated when a reset condition becomes active, even if the clock is not running. If the JTAG interface is enabled, the pull-up resistors on pins PC5(TDI), PC3(TMS) and PC2(TCK) will be activated even if a reset occurs.
Port C also serves the functions of the JTAG interface and other special features of the ATmega16A as listed on page 60.
  •      Port D (PD7:PD0)
Port D is an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pull-up resistors (selected for each bit). The
Port D output buffers have symmetrical drive characteristics with both high sink and source capability. As inputs, Port D pins that are externally pulled low will source current if the pull-up resistors are activated. The Port D pins are tri-stated when a reset condition becomes active, even if the clock is not running.
Port D also serves the functions of various special features of the ATmega16A as listed on page
62.
  •      RESET
Reset Input. A low level on this pin for longer than the minimum pulse length will generate a reset, even if the clock is not running. The minimum pulse length is given in Table 27-2 on page
296. Shorter pulses are not guaranteed to generate a reset.
  •      XTAL1
Input to the inverting Oscillator amplifier and input to the internal clock operating circuit.
  •      XTAL2
Output from the inverting Oscillator amplifier.
  •      AVCC
AVCC is the supply voltage pin for Port A and the A/D Converter. It should be externally connected to VCC, even if the ADC is not used. If the ADC is used, it should be connected to VCC through a low-pass filter.
  •      AREF
AREF is the analog reference pin for the A/D Converter.



ResouresA comprehensive set of development tools, application notes and datasheets are available for
download on http://www.atmel.com/avr.




Crystal Oscillator

XTAL1 and XTAL2 are input and output, respectively, of an inverting amplifier which can be configured
for use as an On-chip Oscillator, as shown in Figure Either a quartz crystal or a ceramic resonator may be used.

C1 and C2 should always be equal for both crystals and resonators. The optimal value of the capacitors depends on the crystal or resonator in use, the amount of stray capacitance, and the electromagnetic noise of the environment.


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